Hilal

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O you who believe! Make not (a decision) in advance before Alléh and His Messenger, and fear Alléh. Verily! Alléh is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.” (Sura é Al Huzurat, Verse é 1). 

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“When a matter has been decreed by Allah and His Messenger, then there is no entitlement for a believer, men or women, to have any option about the matter”. (Sura é Al Ahzab, Verse é 36).

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Preface:

All praise is for Allah Ta’laa, the Sustainer of the entire universe, Lord of all worlds. He enlightened the hearts of His Aulia (friend) with divine guidance and strength of belief, and provided strength to their perception with the luminance of Wahi (revelation).

Whomsoever He desired He guided to the right path, whoever He wanted, in His wisdom, He led astray. Thus did the hearts of the Kuffar and Munafiqeen become blind for accepting the light of Truth, and Allah Ta’ala’s entire argument was established over all His creations.

Table Of Contents:

The Qur’an é A Complete Guidance & Its Simplicity:

Every problem there is a solution and explanation in the Qur’an:

No crookedness in the Qur’an

Accessibility of ‘Shariah Injunctions’:

One Very Important Incident Of Ibn Abbas (Ra):

A companions (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) action:

A question to the propagators who wants to celebrate Ramadan, two Eids and ‘day of Arafah’ in the same day with Saudi Arabia:

The day of Arafah:

Actions of the companions (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them):

Ignorance about following the Saudi Arabia:

Following the ‘Majority’ & The ‘Unity’ Of The Ummah:

Unity impossible when ‘Shariah’ rules are ignored:

Two main reasons of controversy in moon sighting:

Absence of sincerity:

North America is the headquarter of all controversies and fitnah:

No Calculation But Simplicity Was Always Preferred:

The simplest way Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) and his companions (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them) used to practice Islam:

If sun is seen after Iftar?

Simplest action of the Sahabas (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them):

Hilal (crescent or new moon) Issue In The Qur’an & Sunnah :

What is Ahillah:

Other related verses:

Hadith of Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him & give him peace):

Hadith related to ‘Hilal’ (crescent) i.e. new moon:

Prophet Emphasized On The Physical Sighting Of The Moon:

Two fixed method prescribed by Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace):

Related Hadiths:

Scholars Opinion & Miscellaneous:

Sighting of the Crescent by one Person:

Reliable news:

The Arrival of Ramadan:

The Four Schools:

Hanafi, Maaliki and Hambali schools:

Shaafi’i school (math-hab):

The ‘Shariah’ rules for the ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) of Ramadhan in Hanafi, Shaaf’i and Maliki schools:

The ‘Shariah’ rules for the ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) of Ramadhan in Hambali school:

The manner of establishing the Ramadhan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in Shafi’i school:

The manner of establishing the Ramadhan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in the Maaliki school:

The manner of establishing the Ramadhan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in Hambali school:

The manner of establishing the Ramadhan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in Hanafi school:

The sightings of different regions:

The manner of establishing the Ramadhan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in Shaafi’I school:

History Of Telecommunication:

Introducing and improving of telecommunication:

Conclusion:

A question to the propagators who wants to celebrate Ramadan, two Eids and ‘day of Arafah’ in the same day with Saudi Arabia:

We need a command post! Does it make any sense?

Why we emphasized on “observing the ‘crescent’ in a ‘necked eye”?

Some important reasons é why ‘Islamic Shariah’ dislikes calculation:

Our final opinion about ‘Hilal’ according to the Qur’an, Sunnah and four schools:

 

We offer praise to our Rabb, in such gratitude, which is worthy of His Being and magnificent sovereignty.

We bear witness that there is no God except Allah, He is the One and Only and has no partner; that He is the Master of the Day of Qiyamah (the day of final judgment).

Also, we bear witness that our Prophet and leader Hadhrat Muhammad (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) is His bondsman and Messenger, leader of all the ancients and the moderns. He was sent forth with the Holy Qur’an as a blessing for the humanity and other creations and a bearer of glad tidings for the Muslims.

Ea Allah! Send Durood and Salaam, shower blessings upon your bondsman and Messenger, Muhammad (peace be upon him), upon his descendants, Ashaab and Tabi`een and Tabe-Tabi’een (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them).

Amma – Ba`ad. O Muslims, fear Allah Ta’laa. Fear Allah Ta’laa as is His due. Hold fast to the strong bond of Islam.

Allah Ta`ala’s ‘Deen’ in the Heavens and the Earth, for the ancients and the moderns is only the ‘Deen-e-Islam’.

Islam has completed 1400 years ago:

This ‘Deen’ (Islamic religion) been completed by Allah Ta’laa.

Hazrat Muhammad, Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) of Allah Ta’laa, has also completed his prophetic duty in every sector of this religion.

As Allah Ta’laa says, –

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as your religion”. (Sura é Al Ma’idah, Verse é 3).

Modernization of Islam and the ‘secular intellectuals’:

Recently, a movement started under the banner of ‘Modernization of Islam’.

For us, Muslims, this movement and invitations, which has been started to bring the terms of ‘Islamic Shariah’ under the microscope of ‘scientifically explained Islam’, is a very painful thing.

Some ‘secular educated Muslim ‘intellectuals’ are leading us towards ‘scientifically understanding Islam’, although, they are not even, acquainted with the ‘basic and essential doctrines of Islam’.

Observing the ‘Hilal’ (crescent moon) by naked eye or just get an answer by calculation:

From Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) to 1350 (approximately the time when telegraph system invented, Hijri calendar) every Muslim community used to observe the beginning of Ramadan and celebrating the Eids according to their local moon sight with their naked eyes.

Almost 1400 years Muslims used to start the new lunar month by observing the moon in their naked eyes. Muslims are in America, before Columbus reached America. At that time also Muslims practiced Islam in North America. The people of East coast did not know when the people of the West coast started Ramadan or celebrating the Eids.

Who can claim more piety then Ibn Abbas (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him):

Not only in America, this situation was observed between Madina and Syria in the presence of Ibn Abbas (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him), a famous companion of Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace).

Nobody raised any question nor they go for calculation instead of observing the crescent moon with their naked eyes. Furthermore, to Ibn Abbas (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) the physical moon sighting in Syria is not valid for the people of Madinah, as they did not see it by their necked eyes.

Although, at first 3 schools (Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali) said that after the new moon is seen anywhere in the world, it becomes obligatory for all Muslims to begin fasting.

But what we observed that last 1400 years these 3 schools also abruptly followed the method of Ibn Abbas (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) i.e. following the local moon sight with their naked eyes.

We seek guidance:

We ask Allah Ta’laa, the Master of the Day of Judgment for our guidance and on Him we depend and rely.

“(They say): “Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are the Bestower.” (Ameen.) (Sura é Al Imran, Verse é 8).

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The Qur’an é A Complete Guidance & Its Simplicity:

Every problem there is a solution and explanation in the Qur’an:

Allah Ta’laa says in the Qur’an é

Acknowledgments:

Beloved brother Muzammil who is trying to become a Hafiz and sincere sister Rachel.

“And We have sent down to you a Book (the Qur’an) explaining all things.” (Sura – An-Nahl, Verse é 089).

No crookedness in the Qur’an:

The Qur’an is very clear and simple to understand and there is no crookedness in this book. As Allah Ta’laa says é

“All praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has sent down to His slave (Muhammad, peace be upon him) the Book (the Qur’an), and has not placed therein any crookedness.” (Sura é Al-Kahf, Verse é 1).

Accessibility of ‘Shariah Injunctions’:

Definitely, Allah Ta’laa does not leave His servants without guidance to be lost and destroyed in the darkness and confusion. Rather Allah Ta’laa provided His servants guidance and simplicity.

Allah Ta’laa Himself says in the Qur’an é

“Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put you to difficulties.” (Sura é Al Baqarah, Verse é 185).

Similarly, in another place Allah Ta’laa says é

“Allah burdens not a person beyond his/her scope (capacity).” (Sura é Al Baqarah, Verse é 286).

In the same verse, we see é

“Our Lord! lay not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear.” (Sura é Al Baqarah, Verse é 286).

One Very Important Incident Of Ibn Abbas (Ra):

A companions (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) action:

According to ‘Ikrimah, al-Qasim ibn Muhammad, Salim, Ishaq, the correct opinion among the Hanafiyyah, and the chosen opinion among the Shaf’iyyah, is that every “country” (or territory) is to take into consideration its own crescent sighting and not necessarily to follow the sighting of others.

This is based on what Kuraib (may Allah Ta’laa be merciful to him) said, “While I was in ash-Sham, the new moon (crescent) of Ramadan appeared on Thursday night. I returned to Madinah at the end of the month. There, Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) asked me é

‘When did you people see the new moon?’

I said é

‘We saw it on Thursday night.’

He said é

‘Did you see it yourself?’

I said – ‘

Yes, the people saw it, and they and Mu’awiyyyah (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) fasted.’

He said,

‘But we saw it on Friday night. We will not stop fasting until we complete thirty days or until we see the new moon.’

I said – ‘

Isn’t Mu’awiyyah’s (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) sighting and fasting sufficient for you?’

He said é

‘No . . . This is the order of the Messenger of Allah.’ ” This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmidhi.

About the hadith, at-Timmidhi says: “It is hassan sahih ghareeb. Scholars act in accordance with this hadith. Every land has its sighting.” In Fath al-‘Alam Sharh Bulugh al-Maram, it is stated: The [opinion] closest

[to the truth] is that each land follows its sighting, as well as the areas that are connected to it.”

Although, at first 3 schools (Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali) said that after the new moon is seen anywhere in the world, it becomes obligatory for all Muslims to begin fasting.

But what we observed that last 1400 years these 3 schools also abruptly followed the method of Ibn Abbas (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) i.e. following the local moon sight with their necked eyes.

A question to the propagators who wants to celebrate Ramadan, two Eids and ‘day of Arafah’ in the same day with Saudi Arabia:

Do we understand Islam and the unity in Islam more than Ibn Abbas (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him)?

Or does anybody dare to accuse Ibn Abbas (may Allah Ta;laa be pleased with him) (nauzubillah) that he broke the unity of the Muslim community by not joining the same day with the people of Syria, where another great companion Mu’abia (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) was present?

We should fear Allah Ta’laa and Him alone.

The day of Arafah:

To day a large number of Muslims are raising their voice to celebrate the day of Arafah along with Saudi Arabia.

They present a hadith, as an evidence in this context.

Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said é

“In the day of Arafah you fast and the vary next day you do ‘nahr’ (slaughter animals).”

Response:

The hadith is sahih but it is an inappropriate evidence. Reasons are é

Hajj and Arafah are such kinds of Ibadah (form of worship) which is related to a particular place and time. One can’t make a Hajj until he/she reaches in Makkah in a particular time of the year.

So does the day of Arafah, where one must be in that particular day and a particular time.

Actions of the companions (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them):

No people received a certificate as the companions (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them) did from Allah Ta’laa. Therefore their action is authenticated and an example for us.

As Allah Ta’laa says in His Mighty book é

“Alléh will be pleased with them, and they with Him. That is for him who fears his Lord.” (Sura éAl Baiyina, Verse – 008).

So, consider when the companions (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) invaded Spain. They did not have any cell phone, television, Radio .etc so that they can contact with Makkah or Madina. Then –

How did they celebrated the beginning of the month of Ramadan?

How did they end of the month of Ramadan?

Which day they fasted for the day of Arafah in Spain?

Which day they did ‘Nahr’ (slaughtering animals) in Spain?

Ask your own heart whether they observed the local moon sighting or not..

Ignorance about following the Saudi Arabia:

Deviators always make an argument of following Saudi Arabia. We ask them when Saudi Arabia it is 1:30 P.M . (i.e. it is Zuhr or Zumu’a time there), in Bangladesh or India it is 8 A.M. in the morning.

If we follow Saudi Arabia then we have to make Zuhr or Zumu’a at 8 A.M. in the morning in Bangladesh.

Does it make any sense?

Following the ‘Majority’ & The ‘Unity’ Of The Ummah:

Unity impossible when ‘Shariah’ rules are ignored:

Allah Ta’laa says in the Qur’an é

“If you follow the majority on earth, they (the majority of people) will lead you astray; away from the path of Allah Ta’laa, verily, they follow nothing but opinions and they do nothing but conjecture (i.e. they only guess).” (Sura é An’aam, Verse – 116).

Two main reasons of controversy in moon sighting:

There are two main reasons, which create controversy and dispute on the occasions of Ramadan and two Eids in the North America. They are é

Ignorance about the Qur’an and Sunnah and

Ignoring the Qur’an and Sunnah.

Absence of sincerity:

Such disputes are usually generated by those é

Who lack proper Islamic knowledge.

Practice Islam partially and

They are not even acquainted with the basic and essential doctrines of Islam.

In the desire to forge the celebration of Eid on one day in all places, the Shariah

rules are ignored and the argument of unity’ is presented. The slogan for unity raised by those who endeavor to force the celebration of Eid on the same day at all places in defiance of Shar’i rules, is not always motivated by sincerity.

When closely monitored, we observe that the very persons who raise the slogan of unity go out of their way to create dispute and spread controversy even in the case of Fard and obligatory Sunnah. They rival, criticize and slander those who did not conform to their desires of celebrating Eid on the day proposed by the trumpeters of hollow slogans of unity.

North America is the headquarter of all controversies and fitnah:

From the information at our disposal it seems abundantly clear that the modernists in North America are a most irresponsible group following personal opinion and desire in matters of Shar’i concern. The principles for sighting the moon decreed by Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) are largely ignored while greater reliance is accorded to rumors such as é “I saw in the internet” etc.

Astronomical tables and calculations which has less or no importance in the Shariah and following the majority are the base of all decisions.

We all forget this warning from Allah Ta’laa é

“O you who believe! Make not (a decision) in advance before Alléh and His Messenger (peace), and fear Alléh. Verily! Alléh is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. ).” (Sura é , Verse – ).

Did Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) ever mentioned in support for calculations? Rather we see Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) tried his best to avoid calculations.

Abu Huraira (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated, the Prophet or Abul-Qasim said é

“Start fasting on seeing the crescent (of Ramadan), and give up fasting on seeing the crescent (of Shawwal), and if the sky is overcast (and you cannot see it), complete thirty days of Sha’ban.” (Al-Bukhari).

In the above hadith do we see any instruction or support for instruction to go for calculation if sky is overcast with the clouds?

Ibn Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated, Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said é amongst us, a lot of people are uneducated and illiterate (and in future a lot of people will be uneducated and illiterate) é those who lack of education and who do not know calculation. Then Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) used some sign é to show that months are sometime 29 days and sometime 30 days.

No Calculation But Simplicity Was Always Preferred:

It is narrated from Ammar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) that anybody who will fast in the day of doubt (because new moon for Ramadan was not seen physically in the 29th of Shabaan and some one is fasting just because of possibility) he/she will be considered disobedient to Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him & give him peace).

The simplest way Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) and his companions (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them) used to practice Islam:

If sun is seen after Iftar?

Asma, the daughter of Abu Bakar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them) narrated, once in the presence of Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) narrated é “we broke our fast during the lifetime of the Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) on a cloudy day and then the sun appeared.” It was asked the narrator was it been ordered to repeat (make up Fasting) the fast of that day? She replied é “Is there any excuse not to repeat it?” (Bukhari).

Narrated by Abu Usama from Hisham bin Ursa from Fatima Asma bint Abi Bakr (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with her) said, “We broke our fast during the lifetime of the Prophet on a cloudy day and then the sun appeared.” Hisham was asked, “Were they ordered to fast in lieu of that day?” He replied, “It had to be made up for.” Ma’mar said, “I heard Hisham saying, “I don’t know whether they fasted in lieu of that day or not.” (Bukhari).

Simplest action of the Sahabas (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them):

Adi bin Hatim (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated, “When the above verses were revealed: “Until the white thread appears to you, distinct from the black thread,” I took two (hair) strings, one black and the other white, and kept them under my pillow and went on looking at them throughout the night but could not make anything out of it. So, the next morning I went to Allah’s Apostle and told him the whole story. He explained to me, “That verse means the darkness of the night and the whiteness of the dawn.” (Bukhari).

Hilal Issue In The Qur’an & Sunnah:

What is Ahillah:

Allah Ta’laa says in the Qur’an –

“They ask you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) about the new moons. Say: These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage. It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness) that you enter the houses from the back but Al-Birr (is the quality of the one) who fears Alléh. So enter houses through their proper doors, and fear Alléh that you may be successful.” (Sura – Al-Baqarah, Verse – 189).

Other related verses:

Another place Allah Ta’laa says é

“It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light and measured out for it stages that you might know the number of years and the reckoning. Alléh did not create this but in truth. He explains the Ayét (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail for people who have knowledge.” (Sura é Yunus, Verse – 005).

Another place Allah Ta’laa says é

“And We have appointed the night and the day as two Ayét (signs etc.). Then, We have obliterated the sign of the night (with darkness) while We have made the sign of day illuminating, that you may seek bounty from your Lord, and that you may know the number of the years and the reckoning. And We have explained everything (in detail) with full explanation.” (Sura é Al Israa , Verse – 012).

Hadith of Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him & give him peace):

Hadith related to ‘Hilal’ (crescent) i.e. new moon:

Ibn Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated I heard Allah’s Apostle (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) saying, “When you see the crescent (of the month of Ramadan), start fasting, and when you see the crescent (of the month of Shawwal), stop fasting; and if the sky is overcast (and you can’t see it) then regard the month of Ramadan as of 30 days.” (Bukhari).

Abdullah bin Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated Allah’s Apostle (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) mentioned Ramadan and said, “Do not fast unless you see the crescent (of Ramadan), and do not give up fasting till you see the crescent (of Shawwal), but if the sky is overcast (if you cannot see it), then act on estimation (i.e. count Sha’ban as 30 days).” (Bukhari).

Abdullah bin Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated Allah’s Apostle (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said, “The month (can be) 29 nights (i.e. days), and do not fast till you see the moon, and if the sky is overcast, then complete Sha’ban as thirty days.” (Bukhari).

Ibn Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated the Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said, “The month is like this and this,” (at the same time he showed the fingers of both his hands thrice) and left out one thumb on the third time. (Bukhari).

Abu Huraira (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated the Prophet or

Abul-Qasim (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said, “Start fasting on seeing the crescent (of Ramadan), and give up fasting on seeing the crescent (of Shawwal), and if the sky is overcast (and you cannot see it), complete thirty days of Sha’ban.” (Bukhari).

Abu Bakra (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated the Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said, “The two months of ‘Id i.e. Ramadan and Dhul-Hijja, do not decrease (in superiority).” (Bukhari).

Ibn Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated the Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said, “We are an illiterate nation; we neither write, nor know accounts. The month is like this and this, i.e. sometimes of 29 days and sometimes of thirty days.” (Bukhari).

Abu Huraira (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated the Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said, “None of you should fast a day or two before the month of Ramadan unless he has the habit of fasting (Nawafil) (and if his fasting coincides with that day) then he can fast that day.” (Bukhari).

Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) said: “The people were looking for the new moon and when I reported to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) that I had seen it, he fasted and ordered the people to fast.” This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and Ibn Hibban, who declared it to be sahih.

Prophet Emphasized On The Physical Sighting Of The Moon:

Two fixed method prescribed by Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace):

Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) has fixed the following two methods for the establishment of the Islamic months é

Physical sighting of the hilaal (crescent moon) at the end of the 29th day of the lunar month.

Completing the month a full thirty days in the event of the moon not being visible on account of overcast or hazy conditions.

984, Ibn Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated, Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said é amongst us, a lot of people are uneducated and illiterate (and in future a lot of people will be uneducated and illiterate) é those who lack of education and do not know calculation. Then Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) used some sign é to show that months are sometime 29 days and sometime 30 days.

Related Hadiths:

Abdullah bin Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) narrated Allah’s Apostle (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) mentioned Ramadan and said, “Do not fast unless you see the crescent (of Ramadan), and do not give up fasting till you see the crescent (of Shawwal), but if the sky is overcast (if you cannot see it), then act on estimation (i.e. count Sha’ban as 30 days).” (Bukhari).

Abu Huraira narrated the Prophet or Abul-Qasim (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) said, “Start fasting on seeing the crescent (of Ramadan), and give up fasting on seeing the crescent (of Shawwal), and if the sky is overcast (and you cannot see it), complete thirty days of Sha’ban.” (Bukhari).

Ibn Umar narrated I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “When you see the crescent (of the month of Ramadan), start fasting, and when you see the crescent (of the month of Shawwal), stop fasting; and if the sky is overcast (and you can’t see it) then regard the month of Ramadan as of 30 days.” (Bukhari).

Abu Huraira narrated, the Prophet said, “None of you should fast a day or two before the month of Ramadan unless he has the habit of fasting (Nawafil) (and if his fasting coincides with that day) then he can fast that day.” (Bukhari).

Scholars Opinion & Miscellaneous:

Sighting of the Crescent by one Person:

The scholars of fiqh agree that if only one person sees the new moon, he is to fast.

‘Ata (may Allah Ta’laa be merciful to him) differs and says that he is not to fast until someone else also sights the new moon with him.

The correct position is that he (himself only) can begin the month of Ramadan or the month of Shawal to break the fast, as ash-Shaf’i and Abu Thaur (may Allah Ta’laa be merciful to them) have ruled.

The Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) has based the fast and its breaking on the sighting of the moon (in one’s naked eye). One’s own sight is enough for him and there is no need for another person’s sighting.

Reliable news:

The fuqaha of Islam have explained that if news of the sighting reaches people reliably (Tareeq-e Moojib) then only does it become obligatory to accept such news.

But, astronomical tables and scientific tables have absolutely no credence whatever in so far as the commencement of Islamic months is concerned.

The Arrival of Ramadan:

The beginning of Ramadan is confirmed by sighting the new moon, even if it is seen by only one just person. If sky is cloudy then completing the month of Shabaan in thirty days.

As there is no such 31 days in lunar months therefore Ramadan will begin at the very next day.

Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) said: “The people were looking for the new moon and when I reported to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) that I had seen it, he fasted and ordered the people to fast.” This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and Ibn Hibban, who declared it to be sahih.

Abu Hurairah (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) instructed: “Fast after you have seen it [the new crescent] and end the fast [at the end of the month] when you see it. If it is hidden from you, then wait until the thirty days of Sha’ban have passed.” This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Commenting on these reports, at-Tirmidhi states: “Most knowledgeable people act in accordance with these reports. They say that it is correct to accept the evidence of one person to determine the beginning of the fast. This is the opinion of Ibn al Mubarak, ash-Shaf’i, and Ahmad (may Allah Ta’laa be merciful to all of them).

An-Nawawi (may Allah Ta’laa be merciful to him) says that it is the soundest opinion. Concerning the new moon of Shawwal [which signifies the end of the fast], it is confirmed by completing thirty days of Ramadan, and most jurists state that the new moon must have been reported by at least two just witnesses.

Detailed will be discussed in ‘Four Schools”.

However, the subject matter in the above discussion is not é

One person see the crescent and every one follow that rather the subject matter is observing the moon physically in naked eyes and action after it.

The Four Schools:

Hanafi, Maaliki and Hambali schools:

Astronomical tables and calculations have no basis in the determination of the ‘Hilaal’. Neither Ramadan nor Eid become obligatory on the basis of such calculations. It is not permissible for even the astronomer to celebrate these auspicious occasions on the basis of his calculations.

It is not lawful to make any announcement of Ramadan or Eid on the basis of such tables and calculations. It is not permissible for Muslims to follow such calculations for the purposes of Ramadan and Fid.

Shaafi’i school (math-hab):

According to the Shaafi school the calculations of an astronomer will be valid for himself not for the ‘general body of the community. While such calculations may be valid for himself, no announcement of Ramadan and Eid for the general community may be made on the basis of such calculations and tables.

Thus, it is clear that in the unanimous opinion of all the schools are – astronomical calculations cannot be used as a basis to impose decisions on the Muslim community in regard to Ramadan and Eid.

The ‘Shariah’ rules for the ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) of Ramadhan in Hanafi, Shaaf’i and Maliki schools:

The commencement of Ramadan is established either by sighting the ‘Hilaal’

(crescent) at the end of the 29th day or by completing the month of Sha’baan a full 30 days should the moon not be visible on account of overcast skies, rain, etc, at the end of the 29th day.

The ‘Shariah’ rules for the ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) of Ramadhan in Hambali school:

According to the Hambali school it is not obligatory to complete Sha’baan with thirty days if the moon is not sighted on account of cloudy conditions. If at the end of the 29th day of Sha’baan the skies are overcast and the moon is not visible, it will be obligatory to make (intention) during the night to fast the following day whether the following day will in actual fact be Sha’baan or Ramadan.

However, the intention should be for the Saum (fasting) of Ramadan. Should it be established that the next day is that of Sha’baan then one will not be obligated to complete the fast of that day which was already commenced.

The manner of establishing the Ramadan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in Shafi’i school:

The sighting of the Ramadan ‘Hilaal’ will be valid if it was sighted by even one uprighteous Muslim regardless of the sky being clear or overcast. The one who reports his sighting should be uprighteous, a male, baaligh (who have attained the age of puberty), a free person and sane.

When reporting his sighting, he must do so by way of shahaadat (testimony), i.e. he must say: “Ash-hadu ééé. (I bear witness) éééé..”

He has to proclaim his shahaadat on his sighting in the presence of the Qaadhi or the Ulama or in the Musjid in the event of there being no validly appointed Qaaddhi as in the case in our time.

Once the declaration of Sh,ahaadat has been made and the decision announced by those in charge, fasting will become obligatory on the whole community.

The manner of establishing the Ramadan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in the Maaliki school:

There are three ways in which the Ramadhan ‘Hilaal’ is established:

(1)Two Aadil (uprighteous) persons sight the moon. These two should be males, free and baaligh (who have attained the age of puberty).

(2) A large number of people sight the moon, the number being such that the possibility of falsehood and uncertainty is precluded. Where a large number of people report their own individual sightings, the condition of Adaalat (uprighteousness) is not a requisite nor is it essential that all the observers in this case be males and free persons.

In the above two ways of establishing the Ramadan sighting, the word ‘shahaada’ is not necessary. There is no imperative need for the observers in these two cases to report their sightings by way of shahaadat (testimony).

(3) The sighting of the crescent is reported by only one person. In such case the sighting will be valid for only the observer and such people who have full confidence in his integrity. Where only one person sights the moon, be it male or female, free person or slave, he/she has to observe the fast However in the first two cases mentioned above, fasting becomes obligatory on all.

Notwithstanding the fact that the sighting of a single person is valid only for himself/herself, it is obligatory on the lone observer to report his/her sighting to the Qaadhi or those in his place so that his/her testimony may be taken.

When only one uprighteous person makes his report to the Qaadhi, he has to testify by using the term, ‘shahaadat’.

It is quite possible that another pious person from another area also sighted the moon, hence the need for lone observers to make their reports. This will enable the Qaadhi to make an announcement for the whole community since he will have with him the testimony of several individuals.

The manner of establishing the Ramadhan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in Hambali school:

The sighting of the Ramadhan ‘Hilaal’ is confirmed by the report of even one uprighteous person who is baligh (who have attained the age of puberty),).

If the Adaalat (uprighteousness) of the one who has sighted the crescent alone is unknown (i.e. mastoorul haal), his report will not be sufficient to confirm the hilaal of Ramadan.

The uprighteous person for this purpose may be male, female, free person or slave. Shahaadat is not necessary in this case. Although the Ramadan ‘Hilaal’ is confirmed by the sighting of one Aadil person, nevertheless, it is not obligatory on him/her to report the sighting to the Qaadhi nor make the announcement in the Musjid according to the Hambali school.

The manner of establishing the Ramadan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in Hanafi school:

If the sky is clear and the sighting conditions are favorable, it is essential that the sighting be reported by way of shahaadat (testimony) by such a large number of people whose testimony cannot be rejected as being false. The large number of witnesses precludes the possibility of doubt and falsehood.

The various individuals who report their own sightings should bear shahaadat (testimony) to their sighting. In this case Adaalat (uprighteousness) is not an essential condition nor is it necessary that all the observers be males.

If the sky is overcast, the sighting will be confirmed by the report of even one Aadil, male or female. The person must be

an adult. Where the sighting is reported by one uprighteous person and conditions are overcast, shahaadat is not necessary. It is obligatory on the observers to report their sightings to the Qaadhi.

Where there is no Qaadhi, they should proceed to the Masjid and make the announcement.

The sightings of different regions:

According to the Hanafi, Maaliki and Hambali schools the sighting of one region is valid for another region if the news of the sighting reliably reaches (Tareeq-e-Moojib).

Distance and direction as well as latitudinal differences of the regions are of no consequence in this matter.

The sighting of the East is valid for the West and vice versa as long as the sighting is reliably confirmed and the news transmitted reliably to preclude any possibility of doubt, uncertainty and falsehood. If the sighting of one region is reliably confirmed in another region, fasting becomes obligatory on the people of that region as well. This applies to Eid as well.

[However, last 1400 years Muslim Ummah did not followed this rule rather they followed Shafii school].

Although some Hanafi Ulama take into consideration difference of latitudinal locations of the regions, but the majority (Jamhoor) Hanafi scholars reject the validity of difference of latitudinal location in relation to the ‘Hilaal’ for Ramadan and Eid.

The authoritative verdict of the Hanafi school is thus on the validity of the sighting of one region for another region irrespective of difference in latitudinal location of the regions concerned.

But, the essential condition for the acceptance of such news is reliable transmission and receipt of the news (Tareeq-e-Moojib). Just any rumor, news, radio announcement, telephone message, telegraphic message, etc. are not regarded as “reliable” nor are these methods of transmission regarded as reliable (Tareeq-e-Moojib) for the purpose of confirming the ‘Hilaal’.

Some persons quote that according to the Hanafi school the acceptance of the sighting of the moon is restricted to a distance of approximately 400 miles. This is manifestly erroneous and misleading.

It is not permissible for muqallideen Ulama of our caliber to ignore the official verdict (Mufta Bih) of our school and form a conclusion on the basis of a minority view which has been rejected by the majority scholars of, not only the Hanafi school, but of the Maaliki and Hambali schools as well.

Yes, the Ulama of one place are fully entitled to reject the messages of elsewhere if in their opinion the transmission of the messages purporting the sighting did not reach them reliably, i.e. reliably in ‘Shriah’ terms (Tareeq-e-Moojib).

Scholars are under no Shar’i obligation to accept news, which they consider to be unreliable.

The manner of establishing the Ramadhan ‘Hilaal’ (crescent or new moon) in Shaafi’I school:

According to the Shaafi school the sighting of one region is not valid for all regions even if news of such sighting is transmitted reliably. The sighting of a region is valid for only nearby places (al-jahatil qareebah).

“Nearby places” in this context has a specific meaning. According to some Shaaf’i authorities it refers to a radius of 24 Farsakh (72 miles). Other Shaafi authorities reject the restriction of 24 farsakh and explain “nearness” (qurb) in this context to refer to all regions which have the same sunrise sunset times.

Thus, according to the Shaafi school latitudinal differences are valid for the purpose of the ‘Hilaal’ confirmation. Messages of sightings, even if reliable, cannot be accepted from just any place.

History Of Telecommunication:

Introducing and improving of telecommunication:

The first idea of the Radio or wireless radio communications arose in the mid-1800s from the theories of two English physicists, Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. In 1888 Heinrich Hertz applied these theories to construct a spark-gap transmitter, a device that generated radio waves from an electric spark.

In 1895 Italian electrical engineer Guglielmo Marconi extended the range of such transmissions and adapted the technology to send and receive wireless telegraph signals.

In 1901 Marconi built the first transoceanic telegraph transmitter, which had a 3200 km (2000 mi) link from Poldhu, Cornwall, England, to St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada.

Developments in vacuum tube technology in the early 1900s by English professor Sir John Ambrose Fleming and American inventor Lee De Forest made it possible to modulate and amplify wireless signals to send voice transmissions. The range and clarity of voice transmissions increased as advancements in technology were made, and in 1915 the American Telephone & Telegraph Company transmitted a voice message by radio between the United States and France.

History of Telegraph:

The first wireless communications devices were radio telegraphs. A telegraph is a device that sends simple electrical pulses along copper wires. The pulses were caused by contact between two metal surfaces, and receivers interpreted these electrical pulses as tones or beeps. A code of long and short signals was developed to represent the letters of the alphabet (Reference: Morse Code, International). Bulky radio telegraphs were installed on ships as early as 1899 and were widely used by 1905. A telegraph-equipped ship was found to have been sailing in the vicinity of the Titanic after the Titanic’s collision with an iceberg in 1912, but the telegraph operator had gone off duty. Because of the Titanic disaster, government representatives met and established rules for enhancing the safety of life at sea through the use of wireless communications. One of these rules required major ocean-going vessels to monitor distress frequencies on a 24-hour basis.

Conclusion:

A question to the propagators who wants to celebrate Ramadan, two Eids and ‘day of Arafah’ in the same day with Saudi Arabia:

In 1915 (Hijri, 1337 in Islamic Calendar) the American Telephone & Telegraph Company transmitted a voice message by radio between the United States and France.

Our question is about the Muslim community around the world prior to Hijri 1337! Did they missed actual Ramadan, two Eids and the day of Arafah? Because there was no advanced science or technology at that time so that they could know which day Saudi Arabia is celebrating the Ramadan, two Eids and Day of Arafah?

Does it mean that the companions (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with them) of Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) also missed the actual and correct days of Ramadan, two Eids and the day of Arafahs? Because they went upto Canton in Chaina, they invaded Spain and other countries. It was not possible for them also to know which day Makkah or Madinah is celebrating the beginning of the month of Ramadan, two Eids and the day of Arafah!

We need a command post! Does it make any sense?

Therefore to show the unity among the Muslim Ummah and to observe Ramadan, two Eids and the day of Arafah in a same day; we need a command post. That multi billion dollars worth command post project will provide é

A cell phone or at least a regular phone to every locality in the world, so that all Muslims including who live in some remote areas around the world can begin and end of Ramadan at the same day and can celebrate the day of Arafa in the same day.

We need more money to educate the rural community in the remote areas in all over the world how to talk in a cell phone.

An emergency project, if telecommunication fails then how we let all the people know the exact date of beginning and ending of the month of Ramadan and the day of Arafah.

Does it make any sense?

Why we emphasized on “observing the ‘crescent’ in a ‘naked eye”?

The reason we emphasized on ‘observing the crescent in necked eye’ is é whenever Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) mentioned the ‘Hilal’, he emphasized on completing the month a full thirty days if the crescent moon is not visible (in naked eyes) on the account of overcast or hazy conditions of the sky.

Some important reasons é why ‘Islamic Shariah’ dislikes calculation:

Calculation can’t be the method of ‘Islamic Shariah’ injunctions. Because –

First of all, Muhammad (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace), Prophet of Allah Ta’laa never did it. Rather he said

“Amongst us, a lot of people are uneducated and illiterate (and in future a lot of people will be uneducated and illiterate) é those who lack of education and who do not know calculation. Then Prophet (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) used some sign é to show that months are sometime 29 days and sometime 30 days” é narrated by Ibn Umar (may Allah Ta’laa be pleased with him). (Bukhari).

Muhammad (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace), is the Prophet of Allah Ta’laa. He could easily ask angel Jibrail (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) about the correct day for Month of Ramadan or 1st day of Shawal.

Instead, he himself (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) preferred to count another day and complete the month as 30 days. He didn’t even send people out of Madinah to investigate the ‘Hilal’.

Those who want to ignore the Prophets (may Allah Ta’laa bless him and give him peace) method they should fear Allah Ta’laa about their arrogance against the Prophet of Allah Ta’laa.

As Allah Ta’laa says é

“O you who believe! Make not (a decision) in advance before Alléh and His Messenger (peace), and fear Alléh. Verily! Alléh is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. (Sura – A-Hujurat, Verse é 001).

Another place Allah Ta’laa says é

“When a matter has been decreed by Allah and His Messenger, then there is no entitlement for a believer, men or women, to have any option about the matter”. (Sura é Al Ahzab, Verse é 36).

Our final opinion about ‘Hilal’ according to the Qur’an, Sunnah and four schools:

Although, three schools opinion were é ‘one country‘s (physical) moon sight i.e. observing ‘Hilal’ or crescent moon in naked eyes) is enough for rest of the world’ é but it was not observed throughout the world last 1400 years.

Instead, last 1400 years everybody followed Shafee schools method, which is to follow the local moon sight (physically with the necked eyes).

So we can say é observing the crescent moon (physically with the naked eyes) in every country or locality where sunrise and sunset time is significantly different é is the correct method to celebrate the month of Ramadan and two Eids.

And as this Ummah followed this method last 1400 years then there is no doubt that it is the ‘Izmah’ of this Ummah to begin the month of Ramadan or end of the month of Ramadan and observing the two Eids based on the local crescent moon sighting in necked eyes.

Allah Ta’laa knows the best and we seek guidance from Allah Ta’laa.

Imtiaz Haider contributed above book to Media Monitors Network (MMN).

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