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CHAPTER-22

SHANTI BAHINI

Besides pressurizing Bangladesh through political and economic measures including water blockade RAW has been instigating and promoting separatist movements to completely destabilize and disintegrate the country. RAW has been providing training and arms to various separatist movements to create anarchy in Bangladesh. One such organisation is named Shanti Bahini. It is fighting for creating an independent state named Jhumland in Chittagong Hill Tracts region.

Historically Chittagong Hill Tracts region has been a part of ancient Bengal. Previously, it was’ within Chittagong district. The Birtish government made it a separate district in 1900 A.D. Thus it was not even a district before 1900, let alone an independent state. At the time of partition in 1947, Hindu leaders including Pundit Nehru had desired that Chittagong Hill Tracts should be included in India. At that time there were oJ:?ly 10% Hindus among the tribals of Chittagong Hill Tracts only ‘Tipra: and ‘Hajong’ are Hindus among 11 tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts. According to census of 1981 Tipras are 12.31% of the tribal population while the ‘Hajong’ are negligible. Since their demand did not have any historic, cultural or religious basis therefore it was not accepted. Indians have been eying this strategic area’ even later. During sixties, Indians instigated Tipras to start trouble in the region but they did not take the bait. Thus Indian design to separate Chittagong Hill Tracts from Pakistan remained unfulfilled.

After the emergence of Bangladesh in 1971 RAW got confident that any country can be disintegrated through a series of conspiracies and covert actions. Its confidence was further bolstered after annexation of ‘Sikkim’ by India. RAW had hoped that due to its support during 1971 War of Independence, Bangladesh will ever remain grateful and subservient to India. RAW even hoped that in due course they will turn Bangladesh into the next Sikkim or at least Bhutan. But they were disappointed to see Bangladesh asserting for sovereignty. Indians were forced to withdraw troops form Bangladesh due to clear and unequivocal stand by Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman. Leter when Bangladesh joined OIC in 1974 and announced that Banglasdesh will play its due role as a memebr country of Muslim Ummah, it was not liked by Indian leaders.

After assassination of Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman in 1975, the new Government in Bangladesh identified itself more closely with Muslim nationalism and started following independent foreign policy. RAW was indeed taken aback by this courageous posture adopted by what they considered a satellite state. They feared that if Bangladesh grows stronger and ber.nmes truly sovereign, it can be a big hurdle in path of their designs in the region. Therefore RAW decided to rein Bangladesh.

Indian policy makers thought if Bangladesh is allowed to prosper, the North-Eastern states of India which are adjacent to Bangladesh will be inspired further for independence. Even the insurgents of these states may get shelter and support form Bangladesh in days to come. To blockade this chance RAW thought it wise to use some ambitious Chakmas who are majority among the tnbals to destabilise and disintegrate Bangladesh. So RAW began to patronise late Manobendra Larma and others in organising a group named Janoshanghati Samity (JSS). Shanti Bahini was organized as its military wing. Training and arming of its cadres was undertaken in Tripura under supervision of

Indian instructors. thus the Indians did despite a clear clause in ‘Bangladesh-India Friendship Treaty 1972’ which stated that neither country would allow the use of its territory for committing any act that might cause military damage to, or constitute a threat to the security ofthe other country.Unveiling Larma’s link with .f(AW, the weekly Friday reports. ‘Mr. Manobendra Larma met Indian intelligence agency officers after crossing the broder in 1976(Weekly Friday: June 3, 1988).Yet when Larma realized his errors and tried to reach a peaceful settlement with Bangladesh Government, India foiled it. The Friday adds, ‘The attempt to negotiate a settlement failed as the armed wing of Janoshanghati Samity (Shanti Bahini) initiated armed operations under Indian pressure in mid 1976’.

Ever-since the Shanti Bahini has been waging a bloody insurgency for creating a separate state called ‘Jhumland’ in Chittagong Hill Tracts region. It not only attacks security forces personnel but also targets innocent civilians who have settled in the Hill Tracts. The details of their cowardly acts are well known and we need not go into details of the same. However, the magnitude of Shanti Bahini cruelties can be assessed from the fact that it has so far (till Jul 95) killed over 25000 persons of security forces and non tribal civilians. They also have coerced some 50,000 Chakma tribals to migrate to Tripura, India where they are lodging in camps set up for them by RAW. Although majority of these so called refugees want to return to their homes, but they are not being allowed by RAW as it wants to use them in its .nefarious game. These refugee camps also serve as recruiting grounds for Shanti Bahini.

RAW has created divisions and factions in Shanti Bahini to stop emergence of leadership, who may come to terms with Bangladesh. On instigation by RAW, Mr. M. N. Larma was assassinated by rivals in his party on 10 December 1983 in Kallanpur camp of Shanti Bahini in Amarpur Sub Division of Tripura state. There are reports that his assassination was arranged after RAW concluded that M.N Larma would no longer serve their interests. This allegation gets credence due to the fact that the rival leader Mr. P.K. Chakma who was involved in murder of Mr. M.N. Larma is residip.g in Agartala as a state guest under protection of RAW.

After the death of M. N. Larma, his borther Mr Santoo Larma became leader of Shanti Bahini. He started talks with Bangladesh Government to solve the dispute but RAW arranged divisioh in his party which led to failure of talks.RAW also arranged a ‘World Chakma Conference’ at Calcutta, capital of West Bengal in April 1987. The four day long conference adopted several resolutions regarding separating the Chittagong Hill Tracts from Bangladesh and establishment of ‘Jhumland’. The details of RAW’s covert acions and involvement in Chittagong Hill Tracts insurgency have been exposed by many Chakma leaders themselves. Mr. Shamiron Dewan,Chairman of Khagrachari Local Council disclosed in a press conference that Indian Government is helping Shanti Bahini by giving shelter, money, arms and training. He added that the Chakmas have no genuine eco-political cause. They are being used by RAW for achieving India’s geo-political interests.

Mr. Tridip Chakma a regional commander of Shanti Bahini ,for thirteen years, who later surrendered to Bangladesh authoritieR told the newsmen that 25 training camps are being run by RAW for Shanti Bahin} guerillas’in the Indian states of Tripura and Mizoram. Some separatists also received training in Deradoon, Uttar Pradesh. He said that Shanti Bahini compels tribal people to migrate to India and stay in refugee camps. Nine refugee camps have been set up at Sabrum, Shikichari, Boalpara, Kadamtolly, Daek, Barachara, Ralma, Trimakha and Ratnanager. He alleged that India continuously keeps propagating against Bangladesh regarding Chittagong Hill Tracts in a bid to make it an international issue(Bangladesh Observer: September 2, 1994).A Nepalese fortnightly ‘The Spot Light’ in its April 29, 1988 issue alleged that a group of Indian policy makers inimically uses Shanti Bahini to launch destructive activities inside Bangladesh. It said that the Chakma insurgents flee to their bases in India after their operations. It added that on several occasions the Chakma insurgents left behind huge India made arms and ammunition including sub-machine guns, carbines, SLRS, sten guns, 303 rifles while fleeing to India on being chased by Bangladeshi security forces.

In an interview with the ‘Asia Age’ Mr. Farooq Subhan, the’ Ex-High Commissonner of Bangladesh to India, who is otherwise considered to be soft towards India alleged. ‘The Government of Bangladesh felt that the main support for the Shanti Bahini was being provided by the Research and Analysis Wing in India(Daily Star: Decemebr 20, 1994). Indian propaganda experts spread news of human rights abuses in Chittagong Hill Tracts. RAW sponsored video films which falsely show brutalities by Banagladeshi Security Forces in Chittaogng Hill Tracts have been sent to the donor countries to suggest stoppage of aid to Bangladesh for violating human rights.

Question arises why India is helping this secessionist movement in Bangladesh.The answer lies in the following:

a. India does not want a stable, prosperous and strong Bangladesh. An ongoing insurgency will be a constant drain on Bangladesh’s economy. Indians hope that by such tail twisting they can render Bangladesh to the status of a client state.

b. India wants to keep Chittagong Hill Tracts issue alive to pressurize Bangladesh and prevent her from adopting independent foreign policy. India wants that Bangladesh must align itself with Indian camp. The Chakma. Refugees and continuing insurgency are the tools in their hands to punish Bangladesh, should it ever falter in this regard.

c. Creation of a separate state in Chittagong Hill Tracts will weaken Bangladesh who can then be forced to abandon its claim of sovereignty and reduced to the status of Bhutan or even turned into Sikkim.

d. RAW maliciously propagates that insurgent groups of seven North-Eastern states use Chittagong Hill Tracts region for shelter and passage of arms and ammunition. They propound that setting up an Indian dominated state in Chittagong Hill Tracts will result in drying up of supply sources to militants and thus will cause serious setback to revolutionary movements in these Indian states (Assam, Tripura, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pardesh and Meghalaya). In other words according to RAW’s theory, for consolidation of Indian North Eastern region, separation of Chittagong Hill Tracts from Bangladesh is essential.

e. Indian dream of getting transit through Chittagong Port to North Eastern states can be realized with establishment of a pro-Indian state in Chittagong Hill Tracts.

CHAPTER-23

Bangabhumi

RAW is actively pursuing its agenda to disintegrate Bangladesh. They always remain in search of an issue for fulfilling their objective. Since there is no division amongst masses with regards to language, ethnicity and culture, RAW has been relying upon religious differences to initiate and develop separatist movements in the country. Bangabhumi is the proposed name of a homeland for the Hindus who had migrated to India from East Bengal in the past. It is stated that one and half crore Hindus uprooted from the basins of Rivers Padma, Meghna and Madhumati who were forced to leave the area on account of economic deprivation and communal riots, now claim to have a right to settle in their own motherland. The state is planned to comprise of the districts of greater Khulna, Jessore, Kushtia, Faridpur, Barisal and Patuakhali of Bangladesh.

The start of Bangbhumi movement was announced on August 15, 1977. Its office is located in Ramlal Bazar of South Calcutta. The organisation styled itself as ‘Nikhil Banga Nagarik Sangha’ (All Bengal Citizen’s Organisation). Mr. Sri Partha Samanta is the President and Mr. Kalidas Vaidya is the General Secretary of the Organisation. On March 25, 1982 ‘Nikhil Banga Nagarik Sangha’ officially declared the formation of ‘Bangabhumi’inside the territory of Bangladesh.Besides forming the ‘Nikhil Banga Nagarik Sangha’,RAW has also set up some paper organisations i.e., ‘Bangla Liberation Organisation’ styled on the pattern of ‘Palestine Liberation Organisation’ and ‘Liberation Tigers of Bengal’on the pattern of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elarn.

Before we expose RAW’s support to the Bangabhumi activists, it is pertinent to analyze rationale of their demand. It is a known fact that after partition in 1947 Hindus had the option to settle either in Pakistan or migrate to India. While many Hindus stayed back in the then East Pakistan, many others migrated to India. Likewise many Muslims left India and migrated to Pakistan. Such migrations were final and cannot be revoked on any pretext’ now. The question arises that on what pretext RAW wants to create a separate homeland for Hindus who had migrated to India voluntarily at their own will from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1947. During the united Pakistan, and even prior to 1977, such a preposterous claim was never raised. Such an attempt amounts to interference in the independence, sovereignty and regional integrity of Bangladesh.

The total area of proposed Bangbhumi comes to 20 thousand square miles which is more than one third of the total area ‘of Bangladesh. The border of Bangabhumi runs in the north along River Padma, in the east along River Meghna,in the west along India-Banglade’sh border and in the south along the Bay of Bengal. The declared capital of the s.tate is at Samantanager (Mukti Bhaban or Freedom House) which has no apparent existence. According to reliable sources Samantanager is nom de plum for Bangabhumi HQ established in a house named ‘Sunny Villa’ in Bhabanipur, Calcutta. This house is owned by Mr. Chittaranjan Sutar, a famous RAW agent. ‘Sunny Villa’ had once played a pioneering role in organising activities for disintegration of Pakistan and creation of Bangladesh. That very Sunny Villa is again active and is being utilised this time for disintegr,ating Bangladesh. The reason is that Bangladesh has declined to bow before Indian designs thus it ought to be taught a lesson.

The flag of proposed Bangabhumi state comprises of one third green colour and the two third of saffron colour. In the middle of the saffron colour is the white sun. On the top of the stand is’ a circle. The National Anthem is the faIrlous song of poet Dijendra Lal Roy: ‘Dhana Dhanye Pushpe Bhara, Arnader Ei Basundhara’. (This land of ours filled with crops and flowers). The National Symbol is depicted by a green circle in another saffron coloured circle with word ‘Sri’, (Symbol of beauty and prosperity) written in the saffron circle. The state policy proposed to be adopted ~s non-communal and humanism. The name of propsed radio station is ‘Bangabani’ keeping in line with ‘Akashvani’ and its’ call s-ign is ‘Joy Banga’ in line with ‘Jai Hind’ of India.

An armed wing of the organisation named ‘Bangasena’ has also been formed. The Commander of this armed force is Mr Kalidas Vaidya. The main organiser and trainer of Bangasena is Arun Ghosh. The only condition for enlistment in ‘Bangasena’ is that the recruit should be a resident or had been a resident or born in East Bengal. If either of the answers is in affirmative then he is considered eligible to be enlisted in ‘Bangasena’. The daily Anandabazar Patrika of Calcutta, while writing about ”Bangasena’ reported, ‘The majority mempers of this Bangasena which is a voluntary force lack any plitical consciousness. They are utterly communal in their outlook, semiliterate and very emotional (Daily Anandabazar : September 13, 1989).

RAW has deliberately recruited Hindu fanatics and extremists in the organisation so that it is easy to get any mischief done from them. However, the experts say that though Bangasena apparently comprises of riff raffs of Calcutta, but many former officers and personnel of the Indian Armed Forces are also working behind the scene.The supporters and activists of Bangabhumi had threatened to enter into Bangladesh from India many times in the past. But all their attempts failed. In Bangladesh they had circulated posters and publicity material printed in India through agents of RAW. Many such posters, leaflets and pamphlets were seized by police from Naryanganj, Kushtia, Jessore, Khulna and Barisal.

Besides, police also seized many so-called flags of Bangabhumi which the agents of RAW had smuggled from India for hoisting on Government buildings. However, the RAW agents did manage to hoist Bangabhumi flag at three places in Tala Thana of Jessore. But the local people and the police immediately seized the flags. Bangabhumi leaders also sent letters to the Deputy Commissioners and other senior officers of the area threatening them to ex-communicate with Government of Bangladesh by March 23, 1985 and owe their allegiance to the so called Bangabhumi Government failing which they will be killed alongwith their families.

To create harassment amongst Bangladeshis of this region and to attract international news media, RAW provoked its agents to launch an ,attack on the office of the Bangladesh Deputy High Commission in Calcutta (April 11, 1994). The agents of RAW justified their actiQn by saying that since Bangabhumi has come into being, therefore, they were justified to own .and occupy Bangladeshi Mission in Calcutta. They attacked building of Bangladesh Deputy High Commission in presence of Indian police, entered into the premises of the Mission and hoisted the flag of so called Bangabhumi. . RAW had enacted similar drama through its agents at the office of the Bangladesh High Commission in New Delhi on August 15, 1984.

RAW wants to create disturbances, terrorism and communal trouble in Banladesh on the plea of Bangabhumi movement. The agents of ‘Bangasena’ who are armed with mo~ern weapons are looki"ng for an opportunity to infiltrate into Bangladesh. Thereafter they will create such conditions in the region through blood letting and rioting that India may be justified to march in its regular Armed Forces into the area to establish ‘peace and order’. That is how Indians are ultimately planning to separate western part of Bangladesh. However, this is a long term plan. For the time being, the Bangasena is being nurtured by RAW to function as a pressure group to compel Bangladesh to adopt a Pro-India policy. Nevertheless they are being prepared for the fore mentioned greater objective to be pursued in due course. After all RAW is not an orphan house that it will keep spending crores of rupees on such organisations without any ultimate aim in view.

CHAPTER-24

MOHAJIR SANGHA

There is no end to RAW’s anti-Bangladesh activities. RAW is relentlessly pursuing the agenda to harass and subjugate Bangladesh. A net of conspiracies is being regularly dished out from its research cell for this purpose.As part of its strategy to destabilize Bangledesh, RAW is promoting a mushroom growth of organisations involved in anti-Bangladesh activities covering all fields including political, economic, cultural and terrorist activities. Some of the RAW ,partronized organisations in India are Bangabhumi Movement, Bangladesh Udvastu Kalyan Parishad (Bangladesh Refugee Welfare Organisation) and Bangladesh Mohajir Sangha (Bangladesh Mohajir Organisation) etc. The first organisation i.e., the ‘Bangabhumi Movement’ is demanding establishment of a separate homeland for the Hindus in Bangladesh comprising the district of greater Faridpur, Kushtia, Jessore, Khulna, Barisal and Patuakhali. It is threatening to launch an armed movement for realizing its objective.

The second organisation is composed of Hindus who at the time of partition in 1947 had migrated to India on their own after disposing off their movable and immovable properties. Now they are complaining that they were forced to leave the then East Pakistan and they claim to return to Bangladesh. They also want to get back their properties.

The third organisation, ‘Bangladesh Mohajir Sangha’ claims to represent Muslims of Bangladesh who had entered India illegally in the past under various compulsions and now they want to come back to their motherland i.e., Bangaldesh. The organisation is a front for the Indians to help in push back of so called illegal migrants from Bangaldesh. In this chapter I shall briefly explain the origin, activities and objectives of Mohajir Sangha.

Bangladesh Mohajir Sangha was formally launched by its so called leaders on February 12, 1991 by holding a press conference at Calcutta press club. The dramatic emergence of this organisation was given wide coverage by radio, television and newspapers in India. Since radio and television are government controlled, so it can be easily and safely presumed who the actual sponsors were. The statement of Mohajir Sangha broadcast by All India Radio and telecasted by Dooradarshan says, "We are the Muslims of Bangladesh who had illegally entered India in thousands. Now being fed up ofliving in India we appeal to World Human Rights Commission for our repatriation"(Monthly Kalam : February 1992).

The question arises that how was it possible for such a large number of Muslims to illegally cross the borders without the Indian border security forces even noticing them. More so how did the Hindus allow them to settle in India for such a long time and that they were never arrested or jailed. Now all of a sudden they emerge from no where and start demanding repatriation to Bangladesh.The president of Mohajir Sangha is a rickshaw driver named Raisuddin Ahmed. He is assisted in his anti-Bangladesh activities by Chittaranjan Sutar. Intrigued by the activities of Mohajir Sangha and the unprecedented interest of Indian Government and media, a correspondent of Indian Monthly ‘Kalam’ conduct~d detailed inquiry to ascertain how this organisation was established and financed. ‘Kalam,’ in its issue of February 1992, published a lengthy report comprising of 14 pages regarding Mohajir Sangha and Udbastu Kalyan Parishad. The correspondent of ‘Kalam’ also held two intimate interviews with the President of Mohajir Sangha Raisuddin Ahmed.

As a result of the investigation the magazine correspondent was able to trace the true details and addresses of this organisation. The President Mr. Raisuddin lives in a hut in the slum area on the banks of Ganges-Kashipur in Calcutta. He used to drive a hired rickshaw of one Nimai Gosh. He claimed that he originally belonged to a village in the District of Jessore in Bangladesh and had illegally migrated to India some years ago. However, he could not substantiate his claim about being Bangladeshi national. He is illiterate. The magazine noted that it is virtually impossible for an illiterate person like Mr. Raisuddin to draft such sophisticated leaflets containing appeals in the name of human rights supported by English quotations, leave alone getting them printed and distributing amongst international community. Raisuddin admitted during interview that Hindu babus make these arrangements and also provide finance for the organisation.

Actually it is RAW that finances its members. Raisuddin now does not drive the rickshaw and mostly remains busy in meetings and processions. According to the publicity leaflets the head office of Mohajir Sangha is shown at 5/1, Khagendranath Chattejee Road, Calcutta-2, but actually the headquarters is located at Bhabanipur in a house named ‘Sunny villa’, (House No 21, Dr. Rajendra Road, Northern Park, Calcutta-700020,telephone 751032 and 756935). The long time resident of palatial Sunny villa is RAW’s most trusted, faithful and successful agent Chittaranjan Sutar. It is common knowledge that in the year 1970 the Indian intelligence had handed over this multi-storied building to Chittaranjan Sutar for organising operations against erstwhile East Pakistan. From this villa were initiated all strategies, plans, instructions, coordination and supervision, for disintegrating Pa~istan. Chittaranjan Sutar originally belonged to Barisal, Bangladesh. He and his two other colleagues Kalidas Vaidya and Nirod Majumdar were engaged since 1952 in activities aimed at disintegration of Pakistan. He migrated to India in 1969.After emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state Chittaranjan Sutar returned to Bangladesh with pomp and show. During 1973 elections he obtained nomination from Awami League and contested elections from Swarupkathi constituency. He won the election and became member of Bangladesh Parliament. After assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1975 he went back to Sunny Villa in Calcutta and stationed himself there for good.

Chittaranjan Sutar is not satisfied with the disintegration of Pakistan and consequent emergence of Bangladesh. His aim, as, directed by RAW, is to gradually integrate Bangladesh with India. But due to the changed scenario he could not implement his vicious designs. RAW drew a new strategy; that of partitioning Bangladesh. Chittaranjan Sutar is involved in implementation of the new game plan. As a part of this scheme the plans were drawn to constantly keep on harassing Bangladesh on different issues. Mohajir Sangha was one such weapon to harass Bangladesh. Through Mohajir Songha, Indians wanted to convince the rest of the world that illegal immigration of Bangladeshis into India was not merely propaganda but it was really happening. Thus creating. Justification for eviction of lakhs of Muslims from Indh{where they had lived for generations. Such mass exodus into an already over populous country like Bangladesh will spell doom for the country. Besides, under the garb of these so-called Mohajirs, RAW would infiltrate into Bangladesh its trained terrorists. India can provoke the so-called Mohajirs to claim a separate homeland and may even instigate them to wage subversive actions against Bangladesh culminating into a limited war.

Meanwhile in different Indian states lakhs of Muslims have been discriminated by not enlisting them as voters. They have been denied this right despite the fact that they are Indian nationals and are residing in India since generations. Some who were earlier enlisted as voters and had been casting their votes "in the past elections have also been denied entry in new election roles. The main purpose of this scheme of RAW is to establish that lakhs of Muslims had illegally infiltrated into India from Bangladesh and prepare a strong base for th~ir repatriation.

During the visit of Bangladesh Foreign Minister to India in 1991 RAW arranged a mass sit-in and hunger strike by the Mohajir Sangha. A leaflet circulated at the occasion by Mohajir Sangha read, ‘foreign aid misappropriated, sovereignty at stake, basic principles of constitution framed after independence abandoned, a few people have usurped all the wealth of Bangladesh and have destroyed the economic base of B"angladesh, the labour class has been rendered into beggars.Their demands included holding trial of killers of Bangabandhu, rehabilitation of labour and restoration of the human rights. A memorandum was also submitted to the Bangladesh Foreign Minister on this occasion.

From the language of the above mentioned leaflet the objectives of the Mohajir Sangha can be easily guessed. Needless to mention that the memorandum presented to the Foreign Minister was given wide publicity through the government media i.e.; All India Radio and Doordarshan.Copies of the memorandum were also sent to the foreign embassies and missions in New Delhi.RAW arranged wide media publicity for the activities of Mohajir Sangha. Incredible editorials and articles were published in newspapers like Ananda Bazar Patrika, Bartaman, Jugantar, Statesman, Sunday, Swatikatha, Ganashakti etc. All these papers gave wide coverage to the statements of Mohajir Sangha. The papers expres~ed their indignation at the failure of the Government in identifying the infiltrators and arranging their eviction. Curiously enough Mr. Raisuddin, the man who confessed himself of illegally infiltrating into India was not arrested. The media did not utter even a single wort! to say under what right of the law such an illegal infiltrator had started an organisation in India, held a press conference, took out a procession with the slogan of ‘Allahu Akbar’, held mass hunger strike and how their activities were given wide coverage through government media i.e. Doordarshan and All India Radio.

The papers did not raise any question about it, because they knew that Bangladesh Mohajir Sangha was, in fact, their weapon for Bangladesh bashing. They understood that this weapon should not be blunted, rather it has to be kept sharpened ever and always. The establishment of organisations such as Mohajir Sangha is proof enough of the fact that RAW and in turn the Government of India is actively and continuously harassing Bangladesh. The most unfortunate part, however, is that no effort is made in Bangladesh to expose these Indian designs. Our common people and even the educated class in the urban areas do not know any thing about it. Experienced observers are of the view that RAW has strong influence over important state organs and individuals who connive with RAW. Unless RAW’s agents in various echelons of Bangladesh are eliminated the country’s interests and sovereignty will remain at the risk of being compromised.

CHAPTER-25

PUSH BACK

‘Push Back’ is the common term used to describe Indian scheme to send hundreds of thousands of Indian citizens into Bangladesh. India claims that these’ people had illegally entered into -India from Bangladesh and thus should be ‘pushed back’ to their country. At occasions Indians did try to push back some people, but prompt action by Bangladesh authorities thwarted their efforts. However, a critical analysis indicates that the issue has been coined by RAW with long term ulterior motives. These include :

a. To raise bogy of an imaginary threat of large scale infiltration from Bangladesh into India and thus arousing public sentiments against Bangladesh. RAW believes that to have real or imaginary enemies is necessary for maintaining national integration.

b. A large number of agents can be penetrated and permanently settled in Bangladesh by RAW using the cover of push back. These agents can then work for disintegration of Bangladesh from within.

c. The issue can be used as an excuse to wage war against Bangladesh in the name of securing rights of large number of Bangladeshi refugees. Ever since the creation of Bangladesh various Indian Governments have been endeavouring to whip up the issue. Dr. SS Bindra in his book ‘India and Her Neighbours’ (page 166) writes, "During Sheikh Mujib’s regime, theGovernment of India protested to Bangladesh that large number of Bangladeshi nationals had entered into West Bengal.

The Bangladesh Government denied that any of their nationals had crossed over into India. They argued that these immigrants were actually ‘Indian nationals’ who had traveled to Bangladesh when the freedom struggle in Bangladesh was going on. But after some time they returned to their own country. Commenting on the issue The Daily Statesman wrote on 13 October 1974, "It is possible that a sizeable number of 1947 refugees had returned to their original homes in 1971.

But Bangladesh Government considers them aliens. Many of them returned to India who are now considered as Bangladeshi nationals by India. It is obvious that Bangladesh cannot accept such an absurd claim. The migration in the wake of partition of 1947 was final. No body has the right to reclaim his original nationality after 48 or 24 years. Actually after 1971 Hindus of West Bengal had wanted to regain their lands and property in Bangladesh which they sold while migrating to India in 1947. They ‘thought Bangladeshi Muslims would not dare to face these Indian Hindus because of Indian pressure. With these hopes they had returned to Bangladesh after the surrender of Pakistan Army. Bangladesh authorities could not check this exodus because no organized authority existed in the country at that time due to the war. However, these people were never officially recognized as Bangladeshi nationals. When these people returned to India, in fact, they returned to their own country. Thus Indian claim that these people are Bangladeshis, is totally untenable.

The Indian propaganda about infiltration of Bangladeshis into India has continued unabated. It is used as a means to divert attention of the people from internal problems of the region (West Bengal and North Eastern states). Recently Indian Home Minister Mr. SB Chaven stated in an interview to BBC that hundreds ‘of thousands of Bangladeshis are entering India illegally everyday (Daily Janata : May 14, 1995).
One should ask India that how it was possible for such large numbers to cross over the border in the presence of elaborate network of Indian border, security agencies? There are 882 Indian border outposts along the Indo-Bangladesh border. In comparison Bangladesh has only 462 border outposts. ‘

Mr. Tapan Sikdar, President of West Bengal BJP unit told in an interview to Monthly Kalam, January 1994, ‘There are 7.5 million Bangladeshi Muslim immigrants in West Bengal and in total 20 million throughout India. Again one is at a loss to understand how such a large scale, migration could take place without being noticed and checked at the borders.

Actually RAW wants to inflate figures to pressurize Bangladesh and in the process obtain her commitment to take back at least token numbers. In this regard RAW had also organized ‘Muhajir Sangha’, a movement of so called Bangladeshi immigrants in India who claim to go back to Bangladesh. ,Details of this organisation are given in another chapter.

An interesting point to note is that while Central Government is crying hoarse about illegal immigration, the state Governments of West Bengal and Assam have been stating that no illegal immigrants are staying in their states. Similarly before assumption of power by BJP Government in Maharashtra, there was no talk of illegal Bangladeshi Muslim immigrants in Bombay. The dichotomy in stands of various state Governments clearly indicates the falsehood of the claim. While BJP is fuelling the issue due to its communal out look, the Central Government has other ulterior motives. Foremost is the diversion of attention of the people from their grievances and giving them a plausible justification for their sufferings.

Let us first take the case of West Bengal. People of West Bengal feel that they have been exploited and deprived of their due share. In Calcutta 68% houses and 80% industrial units are owned by non-Bengalis. Out of 80 jute mills in West Bengal, 79 are owned by 10 non-Bengalee families. 60% of the labour force in Calcutta are non-Bengalis. Almost all top positions in industrial sector are held by non-Bengalees.

The Bengali language has virtually become alien in its own home. Particularly in urban areas Hindi has become the lingua franca. Hindi films are screened in most of the cinemas. Sign boards of Government offices as well as number plates of motor vehicles are forbidden to be written in BangIa language.Calcutta which was the most developed city of India at the time of partition has turned into virtual slum due to constant neglect and lack of development work. Similarly lack of industrial development added to people’s economic miseries. As a result many people have migrated to other states and cities in search of jobs. These include Muslims as well as Hindus of West Bengal. While the Hindu migrants from West Bengal are accepted by other states, the Bengali Muslims of West Bengal are discriminated against and labeled as Bangladeshis. This is indeed display of sheer prejudice against Muslims in so called secular India.

The exodus of Muslims from West Bengal is evident from the fact that while at the time of partition, population of Muslims in West Bengal was 45%, now it has shrunk to 29%. Where have the others gone? Certainly there have been no reports about such large scale migration from India to Bangladesh. Situation in Assam is no different which has been systematically deprived of its natural wealth by Central Government. As stated by Mr. AK Das in his book Assam’s Agony’, ‘There has been serious lack of interest on part of
the Government for developing communication, power, education, health, social welfare, agriculature and industries in Assam’. .Mr. Das further writes-in his book,’The Government of India neglected the North East Region in the development of industnes: in the public sector. The Government has made about 20 percent of its investments in Maharashtra and Gujarat as compared to only 5 percent in this region.

The North East Region has only 21 large and medium scale industrial units out. of 15,000 in India. India has 1,750,000 small-scale industrial units with investments of Rs 12,000. million. But this region has only 3,000 units with a paltry investment of Rs. 150 million. The industrial employment is only 4 percent as compared to 20 per cent in India'(Assam’s Agony, Page -233).Assam produces 58% tea of total Indian production and 30% of total tea productfon of the world. But only one – ninth of the total tea is auctioned in Gauhati. Rest is auctioned in Calcutta and other places. Agriculture goods’worth 30,000 million rupees are taken llway from Assam to other parts of India annually. 60% crude petroleum of total Indian production is extracted in Assam.

Similarly large quantity of natural gas is also extracted in Assam. But Assam’s share in Government funds is not proportionate to its contribution. 60% Government employees in Assam are outsiders. The share of Assamese working in Assam in railways is 14%, telegraph and postal services is 10% and, plywood industries lis 15%. The remaining employees in these departments are all from other states.In such a situation, the growth of discontentment is natural. Therefore separatist movements have grown in Assam and other North Eastern states. The seriousness of the situation was acknowledged by no body less than Indian Army Chief himself who recently stated that insurgency situation in North East region was next only’to Kashmir. However, instead of taking appropriate corrective measures’ to obviate people’s sense of deprivation, the Central Government created the bogy of infiltration from Bangladesh as an excuse for poor development of the region. Initially some people in Assam bought the idea. ‘Assam Gano Parishad’ adopted it as election slogan in 1985 and came to power. However, gradually truth has dawned, on the people. They now understand Central Government’s machinations. That is why Mr. Saikia, the present Chief Minister of Assam categorically stated recently that there were no illegal Bangladeshis in Assam.

On the other hand Central Government ministers still keep harping on the same old theme.Let us also discuss, the illegal immigrants issue propounded by Maharasl1tra Government of BJP. Reportedly many Bengali speaking Muslim families have been uprooted from Bombay, but independent observers noted that all of them belonged to West Bengal. AFP after sampling 100 such families reported that these people had come from West Bangal and not from Bangladesh.

However, Maharashtra Government is bent upon calling them Bangladeshis as they. happen to be Bengali speaking Muslims. Do they want.to say that only Hindus have right to belong to West Bengal?It is quite apparent ‘from the above discussion that so called ‘Push Back’ is a ploy used by India to pressurize Bangladesh, besides diverting attention of the people of aggrieved states. RAW cleverly and wickedly uses the issue to raise anti-Bangladesh hysteria whenever necessary for internal or external reasons.

RAW’ believes that by such tactics it can keep Bangladesh under pressure and hence push it to total subjugation. Moreover, use of the issue by the Indians in combination with their bigger game plan i.e. invasion of Bangladesh claiming that their national interests have been endangered due to large scale alien immigrants, cannot be ruled out.

CHAPTER-26

HINDU ORGANIZATIONS

RAW has sponsored the establishment of a large number of Hindu organizations in Bangladesh for a variety of purposes to include; rendering support to pro-Indian political parties, to give shelter to Indian terrorists, to divide people on various issues, to spread communal and class hatred and finally to create favourable conditions for merger of Bangladesh into India. Common people are not fully aware of all such organizations and their activities. They mostly know only about some political groups and cultural forums who are widely reputed to be pro-India. However, there are many other organizations that are working against national interests and it is important that their activities should be brought to the notice of our people. Of particular interest in this regard are the RAW sponsored organizations of minority community.

The Hindu communalists have not till today reconciled with the partition of India in 1947. They may be living in Bangladesh but their loyalty and allegiance are with India. Many of their communal organizations are working to undo the partition. In other words they are working against the integrity of Bangladesh. RAW is their main financier. However, these organizations also get financial and other support from various extremist Hindu parties of India including BJP, VHP, Shiv Sena, Bajrang Dal etc. The only overt organisation of minorities is Hindu Buddha-Christian Oikya Parishad. Other organisations work so discreetly that not much is known about their activities out side their own community.

Names of some of these organisations are :

a. Bangladesh Jatiya Hindu Samaj Sanskar Samity (BJHSSS).

b. Pranab Moth Shevasharam (It was re-organised from defunct Bharat Shevasharam).

c. Bangladesh Sant Mohamandal.

d. Bangladesh Hindu Foundation.

e. Vishwa Dharma Shanti Shammelan Bangladesh.

f. Bangladesh Chaitanna Shanskritic Shangh.

g. International Society for Krishna Conciousness(ISKcoN). Its head Office is in Mayapur, District Nadia, West Bengal, India.

h. Ananda Marg(Daily Meillat : June 7, 1992).

Besides above, a number of other small organisations also exist which virtually work as the Bangladesh branches of communal extremist Hindu organisations of India. These organisations outwardly profess to be doing humanitarian work i.e. alleviation of illiteracy etc. but actually these are dedicated for doing communal work.Some minority organisations also publish newspapers and magazines etc. A Hindu magazine ‘Samaj Darpan’ is published by Bangladesh Jatiya Hindu Samaj Sanskar Samity (BJHSSS). Its office is located at Vholagiri Ashram, K. S. Lane, Dhaka. The cover page of their magazine .is printed in Calcutta, India, due to the lack of photographs of Hindu gods and goddesses in Bangladesh.

It is believed that the entire expenses on printing and publication of this magazine are borne by RAW. Reportedly BJHSSS also published booklets – and leaflets supporting Bangabhumi movement and Akhand Bharat.The head of BJHSSS, Mr. Shiv Shankar Chakarvarti,who is also the editor of Samaj Darpan is reported to have close links with Indian Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP). He is also a supporter of Bangabhumi movement. His close associates include Mr. Bijoy Nandi, head of India Shevasharam, Mr. Vinod Bihari Chowdhury, President Bangladesh Hindu FOl1ndation and Mr. RN Das Gupta, Secretary General Vishwa Shanti Shammelan.

According to the Daily Meillat, June 10 1992, Mr. Bijoy Nandi told in a meeting of Bangabhumi activists at Bangaon, West Bengal that in 1972 the then Government of Bangladesh had given permission to the organisation (India Shevasharam) to work in Bangladesh due to personal influence of Mrs. Indira Ghandi. After the assassination of Sheikh Mujib on 15 August, 1975 all officials of the organisation fled to India. Later they returned to Bangladesh and formed another organisation named Pronab Moth Shevasharam.

The Daily Meillat, 8 June, 1992 wrote: ‘Mr. Shiv Shanker Chkarvarti holds positions in different organisations. He is a member of executive committee of VHP in India and the chief co-ordinator of VHP in Bangladesh. He is also member of executive committee of Nepal based Hindu Mahasangha, President of Hindu Samaj Sanskar Samity, Editor of the Samaj Darpan and above all, chief cashier of Apex Group of Industries. He earned much recognition from RAW for working as a sincere local agent. His magazine ‘Samaj Darpan’ is notorious for making massive anti-Bangladesh and anti-Muslim rhetoric. He spreads message of communal hatred and continuously propagates that "Hindus are being persecuted in Bangladesh. At times his writings are so provocative that these amount to inciting Hindus to take up arms for getting their so called due rights. Mr. Bijoy Nandi, who is the President of pronab Moth. Shevasharam, in his speeches, launches ferocious attacks against Bangladeshi Muslim community. He has been inciting and urging Hindu youth to join Bangabhumi movement.

The Daily Meillat, June, 10, 1992 quoted him saying: ‘You (Hindus) laid down your lives to secure independence of India. Your forefathers fought against the aggressor Pathans and Mughals to save the temples ofIndia. Your forefathers also fought to safeguard our religion and civilization from the atrocities of Aurangzeb. My dear fellow beings! the youth of Bengal and India! Come and join Bengasena and attack Bangladesh to establish Bangabhumi in six south western districts (Faridpur, Kushtia, Jessor, Khulna, Barisal and Patuakhali). Let the UNO and the USA be damned. Let Bangladesh know our strength. Let Indian Muslims understand that Hindus are still alive and powerful!The biggest Hindu organisation in Bangladesh is’Bangladesh Sant Mohamandal’. Its members are spread all over Bangladesh. It has 267 -member Central Committee. It also has a 10-member Presidium Council.

Bangladesh Sant Mohamandal has close links with the Communist Party of Bangladesh and 5 Parties Alliance who are blamed to be pro-India. It tries to control rural politics of Bangladesh through Hindu voters. It also co-ordinates electoral policy of Hindu voters in collaboration with a large national secular political party. The organisation also serves as a recruiting ground for RAW.

All– these organisations are engaged in relentless propaganda against Bangladesh. They spread misinformation, rumours and false reports to paint Bangladesh in poor light. On the contrary India is depicted as a mighty super power. The aim of such propaganda is to convince people that existence of Bangladesh as an independent country is not viable. They quote fictitious figures to prove their point and argue that merger of Bangladesh in Indian union will be in the larger interest of the Bangladeshi people. Members of these organisations are willing and dutiful supporters of RAW in its campaign against Bangladesh.

They are very motivated for the cause of ‘Akhand Bharat’ and in many cases work without any financial or other rewards. They are hardened Hindus who are willing to render any sacrifice. They provide all types of support required by RAW in its operations. From managing safe houses to the conduct of terrorist activities, these volunteers are willing to accomplish any task. Due to their discipline and dedication it is difficult to penetrate these organisation. Hence they are able to do their activities in total secrecy. RAW is indeed lucky to have a large community of hard core and motivated Hindus in Bangladesh who is ready to. do anything for the cause of Akhand Bharat. This situation can indeed be compared to the support enjoyed by MOSSAD from all Jewish people.

These extremist Hindu organizations are posing grave threat to country’s independence and communal peace. Due to their extreme secrecy and discreet working, very little is known about their activities. Taking advantage of the situation, RAW is sponsoring more such religious organizations day by day. It is time that our Government realizes the threat from such communal organizations and necessary steps are taken to regulate the working of these so called religious organizations.

CHAPTER-27

ARMED FORCES

Nobody now refutes the proposition that India in engineering dismemberment of Pakistan in 1971, had really aimed at taking a step forward to re-establish united India. In view of her said goal, India ensured right from 1971 that Bangladesh does not become a strong country. India wants that Bangladesh should remain a nominally independent country like Bhutan and Sikkini which could be occupied later by India when she desires. In furtherance of the said aim India had forced the 1971 Interim Government of Bangladesh to sign a treaty of subservience. One of the clauses of the treaty was that Bangladesh will not raise any Armed Forces of its own. Indians had told the then Interim Government in exile that Bangladesh does not need an ‘Army’ because she is surrounded on three sides by India and the other side by natural sea. Since India was a friendly country, therefore, there will be ne danger of an aggression by her. If any other power resorts to an aggression against Bangladesh, Indian Army would defend Bangladesh, they advised that for internal security Bangladesh should raise a militia force.

That is why Rakhi Bahini was formed after creation of Bangladesh. When Sheikh Mujib still decided to raise national Army it was opposed by India. However, he decided to go ahead with the raising of the Army despite India’s opposition. Thus a small Army was raised comprising of soldiers of Pakistan Army who had taken part in freedom struggle. Later most of the army personnel repatriated from Pakistan in 1973 were also enrolled in Bangladesh Army.

RAW apprehended that if Bangladesh succeeds in building powerful Armed Forces, it will become difficult for India to realize her dream about merger of the new country into India. The Indians knew well about the courage and skill of the Bengali army men. The experience gained during -the liberation war was an additional asset for Bangladesh Army. Indian policy planners concluded that even small Bangladesh Army might in future pose a threat to their aggressive designs.

Indian designs against Bangladesh Army were evident from the very beginning. They did not leave any military equipment captured from Pakistan Army in the then East Pakistan. In this regard the Daily Meillat reported, "The Indians took away the abandoned military hardwares(tanks, artillery, guns etc.) worth Taka 80,000 million of the Pakistan Army’s Eastern Command in order for materialization of their goal i.e. not to permit Bangladesh Army to grow strong(Daily Meillat : May 26, 1993).When Indians realized that Sheikh Mujib is determined to raise an Army in defiance of the treaty signed by Interim Bangladesh Government and India, they encouraged a dissident party to take up the issue of raising a people’s Army or ‘Gano Bahini’. The dissident leaders started propagating that Bangladesh does not require a regular professional Army. They labeled the Army as God’s Khasi (castrated of God). They organised so-called ‘Revolutionary Soldier’s Council’ to realise the goal of ‘Scientific Socialism’. It was actually formed to create division and disunity among the rank and file of the Armed Services.

Soon after the change over of 1975 some cadres of Gono Bahini attempted to create chaos and lawlessness in the country. RAW also stage-managed fake kidnapping in Dhaka of Mr Samor Sen, the then Indian High 90mmissioner in Bangladesh. The aim was to create plausible excuse for India to move in Indian Army into Bangladesh. However, the ‘kidnapping’ drama did not go too far and thus Bangladesh was saved from direct Indian aggression. After coming to power the late President Ziaur Rahman re-organized the Armed Forces. He gave them an honourable position in the society. But RAW did its best to obstruct him. That is the reason for so many coups staged against Ziaur Rahman. He was killed in the 19th coup attempt. Although apparently the coups were aimed at ousting Zia but the ultimate goal was to weaken or liquidate the Armed Forces.

RAW engineered conspiracies to divide rank and file of the Bangladesh Army in various groups. The division between ‘Freedom Fighters’ and ‘Repatriated’ was fuelled to pave way for internal strife and disintegration. RAW has also been endeavoring to project Bangladesh Army as’anti-people’. During the peak period of anti-Ershad movement, RAW spread a rumour that the Army was supporting Ershad. The rumor was aimed at damaging the popularity of the Armed Forces of Bangladesh.In order to protect country’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity there is no substitute to adequately strong Armed Forces. If Sikkim had an effective and strong Army she would not have been occupied and annexed by India.On the other hand Srilanka could withstand Indian pressure because she has her own effective Army .The Maldives, on the contrary, had to seek Indian Army’s help to drive out Indian henchmen from Maldives, because she had no Armed Forces of her own.

Bangladesh must have its own Army not only to thwart aggression from abroad but also to quell internal troubles and rebellions. The credit goes to valiant Bangladesh Army for checking nefarious designs of Shanti Bahini. If Bangladesh did not have an effective Army, Indian supported Chakma insurgents might well have succeeded in dividing the country. Similarly Indian Army would have marched into Bangladesh on any flimsy pretext. The need for strong Army is further highlighted by growing internal threats supported by- India in form of secessionist movements in Bangladesh in the name and style of Jhumland, Hinduland (Bangabhumi) and Garoland etc.

However, the RAW sponsored henchmen have been unleashing constant propaganda against the Armed Forces primarily on financial grounds. Every year before the presentation of budget, discussion starts in newspapers calling for reduction of military expenditure. While need for increasing budgetary provisions for education and health is acknowledged, such increase cannot be made at the cost of Armed forces. Appropriate military expenditure is necessary if country’s existence and sovereignty are to be safeguarded. Everything else comes after the safety of the state.

Let us now have a look at comparisons between defence expenditures ofJndia and Bangladesh published in Daily Sangram. "India’s population size and economy are both seven and a half times larger than that of Bangladesh. But her defence spending is 23 times higher than that of Bangladesh. It is, therefore, a matter of simple arithmetic that our military expeJ1r1iture should be increased three-fold to match the Indian expenditure. The defence expenditute of Bangladesh in 1995-96 was increased only 2.5% over the previous year. India in contrast increased her defence expenditure by 18% in 1995–:96 over the last year’s expenditure"(Daily Sangram : June. 23, 1995).

India is one of the poorest countries of the world. 30% of Indian people live in slums or bastees.50% dwellers of Bombay, 45% of Delhi and 65% of Calcutta live in the slum areas. 90% of Indian children live in malnutrition. 50% of Indian youth suffer from energy deficiency due to malnutrition. 216 million Indians do not have access to clean drinking water. 55 million children in India are engaged in child labour. 75% of the primary school going chilldern cannot afford to attend primary school due to extreme poverty. A World Bank report says "By the year 2000 A. D. the largest number of illiterates will live in India".

This poor country (India) has been building her military might and creating tension, rivalry and scare in the region. But RAW’s stooges in Bangladesh are totally mum about it. If India agrees to cut her military expenditure, other regional countries will be too willing to reduce their military expenditure.Our defence forces are the protector and guardian of our independence. Despite RAW’s. efforts, the Armed Forces are possibly the only institution in Bangladesh which have still remained relatively free of RAW’s influence. ,But it does not mean that RAW has given up her designs against our Armed Forces.RAW has organised an elaborate espionage apparatus through its agents who are relentlessly trying to collect classified information and documents about our national defence. In the past many such RAW agents were arrested by police and our intelligence agencies. Here are a few examples. "Some RAW agents who were engaged in collecting maps and other secret documents of restricted area at Rajshahi have been arrested at Rajshahi. They include Sanjib Roy, Gaynath MandaI, Balram Mehata, Rampada Sardar and Ayazuddin. Most of them were hired to work for RAW man in the Indian Deputy High Commission at Rajshahi"(Daily Sangram : Decemebr 26, 1992).

"The police has arrested 5 persons for smuggling of valuabel state documents. Indian intelligence Agency RAW is believed to be involved"(Daily Sangram : December 11, 1992)."The law enforcing agencies have detained 10 persons including a former cabinet member of the deposed President Ershad in connection with a spy ring allegedly run by RAW. The agencies are looking for ,a number of other persons for their involvement in the smuggling of confidential documents of the country"(Daily New Nation: August 15, 1993)."A former Indian diplomat, M.r.GR Makashi was expelled from Bangladesh on June 6, 1993. Mr. Makashi, who earlier was First Secretary in Indian High Commission in Dhaka was reportedly expelled on the charge of espionage. and anti-state activities. A local newspaper reported that Mr. Makashi had returned to Dhaka after resigning from service. He set up a garment factory in Dhaka’s posh Dhanmondi residential area in partnership with others. He was being kept under watch by police due to his suspicious activities"(The Hindu International: June 19, 1993).

Indian High Commission at Dhaka and Deputy High Commissions at Rajshahi and Chittagong serve as hubs for espionage activities against Bangladesh Armed Forces. Besides, large scale trans-border espionage is also carried out by agents of Indian Military Intelligence, Border Security Force Intelligence, Intelligence Bureau and. notorious RAW as well. RAW’s evil designs against Bangladesh Armed Forces are still continuing. We pray that this vital institution remains safe from RAW’s menacing onslaught.

CHAPTER-28

CAMPUS VIOLENCE

The force that can effectively foil Indian hegemonistic designs is our student community. RAW has applied maximum efforts to extend its influence in our campuses to materialize her master plan. RAW is working on a long term programme directed to misguide and mislead student community and to spoil the congenial academic atmosphere in our educational institutions. Indians had been working in our educational institutions since the Pakistan period. Indian intelligence agencies had succeeded in influencing a group of student leaders during the student’s movement of 1962.

This influence was further expanded during the 6-point movement. After creation of RAW in Septemebr 1968, India’s influence on the student leaders increased substantially. As a result student-led mass movement of 1969 went, more or less, under the control of RAW influenced student leaders. It has now been confirmed by researchers, writers and journalists at home and abroad, including Indians that RAW had played pioneer role in creation of ‘Joy BangIa Bahini’in 1970 and ‘Mujib Bahini’ in 1971.During the Pakistan days Indian secret agencies had kept their activities limited to influencing only the top student leaders. But after creation of Bangladesh RAW extended its canvas and now even middle and lower ranking student leaders are directly controlled and handled by RAW.Initially RAW spread its tentacles among the students and teachers of Dhaka University.. However, gradually they spread their operations to other universities and colleges including medical, engineering and other professional colleges all over the country.

RAW has three designs to achieve by paralyzing our educational institutions :

a: No resistance should develop against India and her cultural aggression, economic exploitation and political subjugation of Bangladesh. RAW has attained almost full success in this regard. During the last 24 years our educational institutions have played almost no role in protests against the aggressive designs of India. RAW’s propaganda has made them a desperate, confused and misled force. Instead of resisting evil designs of India, they are engaged in negative politics, anti-social and even anti-national activities. Many students have started practicing Hindu culture in the name of Bengali culture.

b: India, through her agents, has constantly been creating clashes and conflicts in the campuses which have destroyed academic environments in Bangladesh. Due to ever increasing violence many students have started preferring to go to India for higher education. India thus not only earns a lot of foreign exchange but also is in a position to brainwash these students. When these students will return to Bangladesh after finishing their studies to take up responsible positions in Bangladesh, they will be more likely to have soft corner for India and thus will directly or indirectly serve her cause.

c: RAW has cultivated a strong pro-India pressure group among the students. Due to fear of pro-India students lobby the government can neither take any action against India’s hegemonies designs nor even adopt an independent foreign policy. RAW has used a portion of our student community to put pressure on all governments from Mujib to Khaleda Zia by inciting the students to create disturbances and law and order problems. Commenting about the state of affairs of Dhaka University, The Daily Meillat wrote, "The Dhaka University, once known as Oxford of the East, had given birth to all the movements in this region since the British period. Many national movements were born in Dhaka University. RAW knows well that the anti-India movement, if any, would one day start from Dhaka University.

This is why a large section of the teachers and student leaders of the University have been engaged by RAW to keep ‘development of any anti-India movement’ under check. Many of them do not feel ashamed of openly acting against national interest. The University has become. a safe sanctuary for the terrorists and the murderers. Some RAW activists among the students and the teachers have become so bold that they have virtually made the whole University a hostage to their evil deeds. The University seems to have retreated from the main stream of our national hopes and aspirations. The terrorism which started from the Dhaka University campus has now spread over to other campuses as well.

The atmosphere for learning and teaching has withered away. That is why the college and university campuses are full of clashes, infighting, chasing, counter-chasing, demonstrations, gherao., gun-fights, arrests, injuries, killing, strikes, deferment of examination and even beating of teachers by students"(Daily Mellat : August, 25, 1995).There is not a single college or university in the country form Tetulia to Teknaf where clashes among the students do not occur. Many of these clashes are. not even reported in the media, thus the true statistics in this regard are difficult to compile.

However, following statistics published in The Daily Sangram detailing an account of clashes of four years (from January 1, 1991 to Febuary 15, 1995) provide some insight about state of affairs :

Year Number of Clashes Iniured Killed

1991 200 2000 15

1992 250 2000 25

1993 35Q 2500 40

1994 200 2200 30

1995 (upto February 15)

35 1000 6

Clashes have occurred not only in the major universities of Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Jahangirnager and Islamic University but also at far flung college of the island of Hatiya and at the mountainous region of Khagrachari. During this period due to Occurrence of clashes, the~nstitutions were closed down unscheduled for 250 times"(Daily Sangram : February 18, 1995).The Daily Ittefaq reported, "Including the death of Students League activist Joydip Dutta Chowdhury on January 21, 1995, 54 persons have been killed in Dhaka University premises since the inception of Bangladesh in 1971. Among them 20 were outsiders. Among them only two persons were killed in police firing, the rest were killed in clashes between rival students"(Ittefaq : February 28, 1995)."The students are killed in campuses due to internal

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